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Secondary Prevention of Stroke

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    Overview and Recommendations

    • Background

    • Evaluation

    • Management

  • Related Summaries

  • Stroke Recurrence Risk

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    Recommendations

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      American Heart Association/American Stroke Association (AHA/ASA) guideline on risk factor reduction in prevention of stroke in patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA)

      • Physical activity

      • Lipid control

      • Blood pressure reduction

      • Nutrition

      • Obesity

      • Tobacco use

      • Alcohol consumption

      • Diabetes and glucose metabolism disorders

      • Metabolic syndrome

      • Sleep apnea

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        Antithrombotic therapies

        • Antiplatelet therapies

        • Anticoagulation therapies

        • Antiplatelet vs. anticoagulant therapies

        • Combination therapy

      • Surgical procedures

      • Reference

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    Lifestyle

    • Alcohol use

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      Physical activity

      • Recommendations for physical activity for secondary prevention of stroke

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    Medications

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      Antithrombotic therapy

      • Antiplatelet agents for secondary prevention of stroke

      • Recommendations for secondary prevention in other presumptive causes of TIA or stroke

      • Anticoagulants (for patients with noncardioembolic stroke or TIA)

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      Antihypertensive drugs

      • Antihypertensive treatment for stroke prevention

      • Beta-blockers

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      Statins

      • Recommendations for statins

      • Efficacy of statins for secondary prevention

    • Antidiabetic drugs

    • Estrogen

    • Probucol

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    Surgery and Procedures

    • AHA/ASA recommendations for surgical procedures after recent transient ischemic attack (TIA) or stroke

    • Carotid artery stenosis repair

    • Angioplasty for intracranial artery stenosis

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      Patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure for secondary prevention of stroke

      • Guidance from professional organizations

      • Evidence

    • Other surgical procedures

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    Other Prevention Strategies

    • Integrated care model

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    Quality Improvement

    • Physician Quality Reporting System Quality Measures

    • National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence Quality and Outcomes Framework Indicators

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    Guidelines and Resources

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      Guidelines

      • United States guidelines

      • United Kingdom guidelines

      • Canadian guidelines

      • European guidelines

      • Asian guidelines

      • Mexican guidelines

    • Review articles

  • Patient Information

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    References

    • General references used

    • Recommendation grading systems used

    • Synthesized Recommendation Grading System for DynaMed

    • DynaMed Editorial Process

    • Special acknowledgements

    • How to cite

Topic Editor
Heidi B. Schwarz MD, FAAN
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Affiliations

Professor of Clinical Neurology, University of Rochester; New York, United States; Neurologist, Strong Memorial Hospital; New York, United States

Conflicts of Interest

Dr. Schwarz declares no relevant financial conflicts of interest.

Recommendations Editor
Zbys Fedorowicz MSc, DPH, BDS, LDSRCS
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Affiliations

Director of Bahrain Branch of the United Kingdom Cochrane Center, The Cochrane Collaboration; Awali, Bahrain

Conflicts of Interest

Dr. Fedorowicz declares no relevant financial conflicts of interest.

Deputy Editor
Alexander Rae-Grant MD, FRCPC, FAAN
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Affiliations

Deputy Editor Neurology, DynaMed Plus; Massachusetts, United States; Neurologist, Cleveland Clinic; Ohio, United States

Conflicts of Interest

Dr. Rae-Grant declares no relevant financial conflicts of interest.

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