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Long-term Management of Stroke

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    Overview and Recommendations

    • Background

    • Evaluation

    • Management

  • Related Summaries

  • Secondary Prevention

  • Swallowing dysfunction

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    Nutrition

    • Recommendations from professional organizations

    • Nutritional supplements

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    Cognitive Impairment and Dementia

    • Epidemiology

    • Assessment

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      Treatment

      • Recommendations from professional organizations

      • Evidence

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    Depression and Other Psychological Issues

    • Overall assessment and considerations

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      Depression

      • Epidemiology of poststroke depression and general information

      • Prevention of poststroke depression

      • Screening for poststroke depression

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        Treatment of poststroke depression

        • Recommendations from professional organizations

        • Antidepressants

        • Counseling

        • Exercise and physical activities

        • Other management

    • Anxiety

    • Pseudobulbar affect/emotionalism

    • Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

    • Apathy

  • Poststroke fatigue (PSF)

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    Pain and Spasticity

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      Poststroke pain

      • General information

      • Pharmacologic pain management

      • Nonpharmacologic pain management

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      Spasticity

      • General information and recommendations

      • Botulinum toxin for poststroke spasticity

      • Other interventions for poststroke spasticity

    • Contractures

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    Prevention and Treatment of Comorbidities

    • Falls and fractures

    • Oral hygiene

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      Pressure ulcers

      • Prevention

      • Treatment of pressure ulcers

    • Seizures

    • Urinary incontinence

    • Bowel dysfunction

    • Sexual dysfunction

    • Sleep apnea

    • Venous thromboembolism

    • Osteoporosis

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    Prognosis

    • Survival

    • Prognosis by stroke subtypes

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      Functional outcomes

      • Degree of disability

      • Psychosocial factors

    • Prediction of recurrent stroke

    • Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality

    • Hospital readmission

  • Rehabilitation

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    Quality Improvement

    • Physician Quality Reporting System Quality Measures

    • Quality and Outcomes Framework Indicators

    • Choosing Wisely Australia

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    Guidelines and Resources

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      Guidelines

      • International guidelines

      • United States guidelines

      • United Kingdom guidelines

      • Canadian guidelines

      • European guidelines

      • Asian guidelines

      • Mexican guidelines

      • Central and South American guidelines

      • Australian and New Zealand guidelines

      • Quality indicators

    • Review articles

    • MEDLINE search

  • Patient Information

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    ICD Codes

    • ICD-10 codes

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    References

    • General references used

    • Recommendation grading systems used

    • Synthesized Recommendation Grading System for DynaMed

    • DynaMed Editorial Process

    • Special acknowledgements

    • How to cite

Topic Editor
Igor B. Dorokhine MD
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Affiliations

Attending Physician, Department of Geriatrics, Crozer-Chester Medical Center; Pennsylvania, United States

Conflicts of Interest

Dr. Dorokhine declares no relevant financial conflicts of interest.

Recommendations Editor
Zbys Fedorowicz MSc, DPH, BDS, LDSRCS
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Affiliations

Director of Bahrain Branch of the United Kingdom Cochrane Center, The Cochrane Collaboration; Awali, Bahrain

Conflicts of Interest

Dr. Fedorowicz declares no relevant financial conflicts of interest.

Deputy Editor
Alexander Rae-Grant MD, FRCPC, FAAN
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Affiliations

Deputy Editor Neurology, DynaMed Plus; Massachusetts, United States; Neurologist, Cleveland Clinic; Ohio, United States

Conflicts of Interest

Dr. Rae-Grant declares no relevant financial conflicts of interest.

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