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Management of Type 2 Diabetes in Adults


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    Overview and Recommendations

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      • Glycemic goals

      • Lifestyle modification

      • Glucose-lowering medications

      • Management of comorbidities

      • Follow-up

  • Related Summaries

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    Glycemic Goals

    • Glycemic goals in nonpregnant adults

    • Glycemic goals in pregnant women with preexisting type 2 diabetes

    • Glycemic goals in older adults (≥ 65 years old)

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    Lifestyle Modifications

    • Diet

    • Activity

    • Efficacy of lifestyle management

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      Glucose-lowering medications

      • Recommendations

      • Comparative efficacy

    • Weight loss medications

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    Surgery and Procedures

    • Perioperative management

    • Bariatric (metabolic) surgery

    • Endoscopic procedures

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    Other Management

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      Disease management and education

      • General considerations

      • Patient education

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        Care management

        • Team care

        • Group visits

        • Peer support

        • Technology-supported care management

      • Practice improvements and organization

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      Special populations

      • Pregnant women with preexisting diabetes

      • Older adults

      • Hospitalized patients

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      Management of comorbidities

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        Cardiovascular disease risk factors

        • Dyslipidemia

        • Hypertension

      • Cardiovascular disease

      • Overweight or obesity

      • Diabetic retinopathy

      • Diabetic nephropathy

      • Diabetic neuropathy

    • Management of hypoglycemia

    • Smoking cessation

    • Foot care

    • Driving

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      • Preconception counseling

      • Psychosocial management

  • Vaccinations

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    • General considerations for follow-up

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      Monitoring for glycemic control

      • HbA1c

      • Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG)

      • Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM)

    • Monitoring for cardiovascular risk factors

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      Monitoring for complications

      • Macrovascular complications

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        Microvascular complications

        • Retinopathy

        • Nephropathy

        • Neuropathy

      • Other complications

    • Monitoring for associated conditions

    • Efficacy of monitoring frequency

  • Consultation and Referral

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    Guidelines and Resources

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      • International guidelines

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        United States guidelines

        • Comprehensive guidelines (United States)

        • Nutrition guidelines (United States)

        • Self-management guidelines (United States)

        • Specific setting or populations (United States)

        • Other guidelines (United States)

      • United Kingdom guidelines

      • Canadian guidelines

      • European guidelines

      • Asian guidelines

      • Central and South American guidelines

      • Australian and New Zealand guidelines

      • Middle Eastern guidelines

    • Review articles

    • MEDLINE search

  • Patient Information

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    ICD Codes

    • ICD-10 codes

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    • General references used

    • Recommendation grading systems used

    • Synthesized Recommendation Grading System for DynaMed

    • DynaMed Editorial Process

    • Special acknowledgements

    • How to cite

Topic Editor
Samir Malkani MBBS, MD, MRCP

Clinical Professor of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School; Massachusetts, United States; Physician Leader, Diabetes Services, UMassMemorial Health Care; Massachusetts, United States

Conflicts of Interest

Dr. Malkani declares no relevant financial conflicts of interest.

Section Editor
Mala S. Sivanandy MD

Instructor, Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Massachusetts, United States; Director, Center for Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome, and Endocrinologist, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center; Massachusetts, United States

Conflicts of Interest

Dr. Sivanandy declares no relevant financial conflicts of interest.

Recommendations Editor
Zbys Fedorowicz MSc, DPH, BDS, LDSRCS

Director of Bahrain Branch of the United Kingdom Cochrane Center, The Cochrane Collaboration; Awali, Bahrain

Conflicts of Interest

Dr. Fedorowicz declares no relevant financial conflicts of interest.

Deputy Editor
Alan Ehrlich MD, FAAFP

Executive Editor, DynaMed; Associate Professor of Family Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School; Massachusetts, United States

Conflicts of Interest

Dr. Ehrlich declares no relevant financial conflicts of interest.