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Management of Type 2 Diabetes in Adults

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    Overview and Recommendations

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      Management

      • Glycemic goals

      • Lifestyle modification

      • Glucose-lowering medications

      • Management of comorbidities

      • Follow-up

  • Related Summaries

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    Glycemic Goals

    • Glycemic goals in nonpregnant adults

    • Glycemic goals in pregnant women with preexisting type 2 diabetes

    • Glycemic goals in older adults (≥ 65 years old)

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    Lifestyle Modifications

    • Diet

    • Activity

    • Efficacy of lifestyle management

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    Medications

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      Glucose-lowering medications

      • Recommendations

      • Comparative efficacy

    • Weight loss medications

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    Surgery and Procedures

    • Perioperative management

    • Bariatric (metabolic) surgery

    • Endoscopic procedures

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    Other Management

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      Disease management and education

      • General considerations

      • Patient education

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        Care management

        • Team care

        • Group visits

        • Peer support

        • Technology-supported care management

      • Practice improvements and organization

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      Special populations

      • Pregnant women with preexisting diabetes

      • Older adults

      • Hospitalized patients

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      Management of comorbidities

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        Cardiovascular disease risk factors

        • Dyslipidemia

        • Hypertension

      • Cardiovascular disease

      • Overweight or obesity

      • Diabetic retinopathy

      • Diabetic nephropathy

      • Diabetic neuropathy

    • Management of hypoglycemia

    • Smoking cessation

    • Foot care

    • Driving

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      Counseling

      • Preconception counseling

      • Psychosocial management

  • Vaccinations

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    Follow-up

    • General considerations for follow-up

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      Monitoring for glycemic control

      • HbA1c

      • Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG)

      • Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM)

    • Monitoring for cardiovascular risk factors

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      Monitoring for complications

      • Macrovascular complications

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        Microvascular complications

        • Retinopathy

        • Nephropathy

        • Neuropathy

      • Other complications

    • Monitoring for associated conditions

    • Efficacy of monitoring frequency

  • Consultation and Referral

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    Guidelines and Resources

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      Guidelines

      • International guidelines

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        United States guidelines

        • Comprehensive guidelines (United States)

        • Nutrition guidelines (United States)

        • Self-management guidelines (United States)

        • Specific setting or populations (United States)

        • Other guidelines (United States)

      • United Kingdom guidelines

      • Canadian guidelines

      • European guidelines

      • Asian guidelines

      • Central and South American guidelines

      • Australian and New Zealand guidelines

      • Middle Eastern guidelines

    • Review articles

    • MEDLINE search

  • Patient Information

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    ICD Codes

    • ICD-10 codes

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    References

    • General references used

    • Recommendation grading systems used

    • Synthesized Recommendation Grading System for DynaMed

    • DynaMed Editorial Process

    • Special acknowledgements

    • How to cite

Topic Editor
Samir Malkani MBBS, MD, MRCP
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Affiliations

Clinical Professor of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School; Massachusetts, United States; Physician Leader, Diabetes Services, UMassMemorial Health Care; Massachusetts, United States

Conflicts of Interest

Dr. Malkani declares no relevant financial conflicts of interest.

Section Editor
Mala S. Sivanandy MD
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Affiliations

Instructor, Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Massachusetts, United States; Director, Center for Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome, and Endocrinologist, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center; Massachusetts, United States

Conflicts of Interest

Dr. Sivanandy declares no relevant financial conflicts of interest.

Recommendations Editor
Zbys Fedorowicz MSc, DPH, BDS, LDSRCS
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Affiliations

Director of Bahrain Branch of the United Kingdom Cochrane Center, The Cochrane Collaboration; Awali, Bahrain

Conflicts of Interest

Dr. Fedorowicz declares no relevant financial conflicts of interest.

Deputy Editor
Alan Ehrlich MD, FAAFP
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Affiliations

Executive Editor, DynaMed; Associate Professor of Family Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School; Massachusetts, United States

Conflicts of Interest

Dr. Ehrlich declares no relevant financial conflicts of interest.

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