Subscribe for unlimited access to DynaMed content, CME/CE & MOC credit, and email alerts on content you follow.

Already subscribed? Sign in now

Learn more about CME



General Information


  • common childhood respiratory illness characterized by barking cough, often accompanied by inspiratory stridor, hoarseness, and respiratory distress1 ,2,3
  • usually caused by viral infection1 ,2,3

Also called

  • laryngotracheitis1 ,2
  • laryngotracheobronchitis1 ,2,3
  • acute laryngotracheobronchitis1,2,3
  • tracheobronchopneumonitis2


  • croup often categorized as either acute laryngotracheitis or spasmodic croup, but no consensus on validity and clinical utility of differentiation1 ,2,3
    • acute laryngotracheitis
      • inflammation of larynx and trachea
      • usually refers to viral croup
    • spasmodic croup may describe any of
      • croup episodes without viral prodrome
      • sudden onset of inspiratory stridor at night associated with mild upper respiratory tract infection without inflammation
      • recurrent croup
    • recurrent croup may be defined as ≥ 2 episodes per year
  • laryngotracheobronchitis has variable meanings and may refer to
    • croup complicated by disease progression beyond upper airway or secondary infection (definition used in this topic)1
    • any croup illness3
    • spasmodic croup2
    • laryngotracheitis2
    • inflammation of larynx, trachea, and bronchi presenting with croup symptoms1
  • laryngotracheobronchopneumonitis may refer to1
    • croup complicated by pneumonia (definition used in this topic, also called laryngotracheobronchopneumonia)
    • inflammation of larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lung presenting with croup symptoms


General references used

  1. Cherry JD. Clinical practice. Croup. N Engl J Med. 2008 Jan 24;358(4):384-91OpenInNew
  2. Smith DK, McDermott AJ, Sullivan JF. Croup: Diagnosis and Management. Am Fam Physician. 2018 May 1;97(9):575-580OpenInNew
  3. Alberta Clinical Practice Guidelines/Toward Optimized Practice (TOP). Guideline on diagnosis and management of croup. TOP 2008 JanOpenInNewPDFPictureAsPdf, minor revision June 2015

Synthesized Recommendation Grading System for DynaMed

  • DynaMed systematically monitors clinical evidence to continuously provide a synthesis of the most valid relevant evidence to support clinical decision-making (see 7-Step Evidence-Based MethodologyOpenInNew).
  • Guideline recommendations summarized in the body of a DynaMed topic are provided with the recommendation grading system used in the original guideline(s), and allow DynaMed users to quickly see where guidelines agree and where guidelines differ from each other and from the current evidence.
  • In DynaMed (DM), we synthesize the current evidence, current guidelines from leading authorities, and clinical expertise to provide recommendations to support clinical decision-making in the Overview & Recommendations section.
  • We use the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE)OpenInNew to classify synthesized recommendations as Strong or Weak.
    • Strong recommendations are used when, based on the available evidence, clinicians (without conflicts of interest) consistently have a high degree of confidence that the desirable consequences (health benefits, decreased costs and burdens) outweigh the undesirable consequences (harms, costs, burdens).
    • Weak recommendations are used when, based on the available evidence, clinicians believe that desirable and undesirable consequences are finely balanced, or appreciable uncertainty exists about the magnitude of expected consequences (benefits and harms). Weak recommendations are used when clinicians disagree in judgments of relative benefit and harm, or have limited confidence in their judgments. Weak recommendations are also used when the range of patient values and preferences suggests that informed patients are likely to make different choices.
  • DynaMed (DM) synthesized recommendations (in the Overview & Recommendations section) are determined with a systematic methodology:
    • Recommendations are initially drafted by clinical editors (including ≥ 1 with methodological expertise and ≥ 1 with content domain expertise) aware of the best current evidence for benefits and harms, and the recommendations from guidelines.
    • Recommendations are phrased to match the strength of recommendation. Strong recommendations use "should do" phrasing, or phrasing implying an expectation to perform the recommended action for most patients. Weak recommendations use "consider" or "suggested" phrasing.
    • Recommendations are explicitly labeled as Strong recommendations or Weak recommendations when a qualified group has explicitly deliberated on making such a recommendation. Group deliberation may occur during guideline development. When group deliberation occurs through DynaMed-initiated groups:
      • Clinical questions will be formulated using the PICO (Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome) framework for all outcomes of interest specific to the recommendation to be developed.
      • Systematic searches will be conducted for any clinical questions where systematic searches were not already completed through DynaMed content development.
      • Evidence will be summarized for recommendation panel review including for each outcome, the relative importance of the outcome, the estimated effects comparing intervention and comparison, the sample size, and the overall quality rating for the body of evidence.
      • Recommendation panel members will be selected to include at least 3 members that together have sufficient clinical expertise for the subject(s) pertinent to the recommendation, methodological expertise for the evidence being considered, and experience with guideline development.
      • All recommendation panel members must disclose any potential conflicts of interest (professional, intellectual, and financial), and will not be included for the specific panel if a significant conflict exists for the recommendation in question.
      • Panel members will make Strong recommendations if and only if there is consistent agreement in a high confidence in the likelihood that desirable consequences outweigh undesirable consequences across the majority of expected patient values and preferences. Panel members will make Weak recommendations if there is limited confidence (or inconsistent assessment or dissenting opinions) that desirable consequences outweigh undesirable consequences across the majority of expected patient values and preferences. No recommendation will be made if there is insufficient confidence to make a recommendation.
      • All steps in this process (including evidence summaries which were shared with the panel, and identification of panel members) will be transparent and accessible in support of the recommendation.
    • Recommendations are verified by ≥ 1 editor with methodological expertise, not involved in recommendation drafting or development, with explicit confirmation that Strong recommendations are adequately supported.
    • Recommendations are published only after consensus is established with agreement in phrasing and strength of recommendation by all editors.
    • If consensus cannot be reached then the recommendation can be published with a notation of "dissenting commentary" and the dissenting commentary is included in the topic details.
    • If recommendations are questioned during peer review or post publication by a qualified individual, or reevaluation is warranted based on new information detected through systematic literature surveillance, the recommendation is subject to additional internal review.

DynaMed Editorial Process

Special acknowledgements

  • DynaMed topics are written and edited through the collaborative efforts of the above individuals. Deputy Editors, Section Editors, and Topic Editors are active in clinical or academic medical practice. Recommendations Editors are actively involved in development and/or evaluation of guidelines.
  • Editorial Team role definitions
    Topic Editors define the scope and focus of each topic by formulating a set of clinical questions and suggesting important guidelines, clinical trials, and other data to be addressed within each topic. Topic Editors also serve as consultants for the internal DynaMed Editorial Team during the writing and editing process, and review the final topic drafts prior to publication.
    Section Editors have similar responsibilities to Topic Editors but have a broader role that includes the review of multiple topics, oversight of Topic Editors, and systematic surveillance of the medical literature.
    Recommendations Editors provide explicit review of DynaMed Overview and Recommendations sections to ensure that all recommendations are sound, supported, and evidence-based. This process is described in "Synthesized Recommendation Grading."
    Deputy Editors are employees of DynaMed and oversee DynaMed internal publishing groups. Each is responsible for all content published within that group, including supervising topic development at all stages of the writing and editing process, final review of all topics prior to publication, and direction of an internal team.

How to cite

National Library of Medicine, or "Vancouver style" (International Committee of Medical Journal Editors):

  • DynaMed [Internet]. Ipswich (MA): EBSCO Information Services. 1995 - . Record No. T114811, Croup; [updated 2018 Nov 30, cited place cited date here]. Available from Registration and login required.
  • KeyboardArrowRight

    Overview and Recommendations

    • Background

    • Evaluation

    • Management

  • Related Summaries

  • KeyboardArrowRight

    General Information

    • Description

    • Also called

    • Definitions

  • KeyboardArrowRight


    • Who is most affected

    • Incidence/Prevalence

    • Risk factors

    • Associated conditions

  • KeyboardArrowRight

    Etiology and Pathogenesis

    • Causes

    • Pathogenesis

  • KeyboardArrowRight

    History and Physical

    • KeyboardArrowRight

      Clinical presentation

      • Typical presentation

      • Croup severity

    • KeyboardArrowRight


      • History of present illness (HPI)

      • Past medical history (PMH)

      • Family history (FH)

    • KeyboardArrowRight


      • General physical

      • HEENT

      • Neck

      • Chest

      • Lungs

  • KeyboardArrowRight


    • Making the diagnosis

    • Differential diagnosis

    • Testing overview

    • Blood tests

    • Imaging studies

    • Other diagnostic testing

  • KeyboardArrowRight


    • Management overview

    • Treatment setting

    • Fluid and electrolytes

    • Activity

    • KeyboardArrowRight


      • Corticosteroids

      • Nebulized epinephrine

      • Oxygen

      • Antipyretics

      • Antimicrobials

      • Other medications

    • Surgery and procedures

    • Consultation and referral

    • Other management

    • Follow-up

  • KeyboardArrowRight

    Complications and Prognosis

    • Complications

    • Prognosis

  • KeyboardArrowRight

    Prevention and Screening

    • Prevention

    • Screening

  • KeyboardArrowRight

    Guidelines and Resources

    • KeyboardArrowRight


      • United Kingdom guidelines

      • Canadian guidelines

      • European guidelines

      • Australian and New Zealand guidelines

    • Review articles

    • MEDLINE search

  • Patient Information

  • KeyboardArrowRight

    ICD Codes

    • ICD-10 codes

  • KeyboardArrowRight


    • General references used

    • Synthesized Recommendation Grading System for DynaMed

    • DynaMed Editorial Process

    • Special acknowledgements

    • How to cite

Topic Editor
Robert W. Schafermeyer MD

Chief, Department of Emergency Medicine, Carolinas Medical Center; North Carolina, United States; Clinical Adjunct Professor of Emergency Medicine, University of North Carolina, School of Medicine; North Carolina, United States

Conflicts of Interest

Dr. Schafermeyer declares no relevant financial conflicts of interest.

Recommendations Editor
Zbys Fedorowicz MSc, DPH, BDS, LDSRCS

Director of Bahrain Branch of the United Kingdom Cochrane Center, The Cochrane Collaboration; Awali, Bahrain

Conflicts of Interest

Dr. Fedorowicz declares no relevant financial conflicts of interest.

Deputy Editor
Scott A. Barron MD, FAAP

Deputy Editor of Pediatrics, Dynamed; Massachusetts, United States; Associate Professor of Pediatrics, University of Central Florida College of Medicine; Florida, United States

Conflicts of Interest

Dr. Barron declares no relevant financial conflicts of interest.

Subscribe for unlimited access to DynaMed content.
Already subscribed? Sign in