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Risk Factors for Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

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  • Related Summaries

  • Overview

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    Metabolic Risk Factors

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      Obesity and weight gain

      • General

      • Women

      • Men

    • Prediabetes

    • Metabolic syndrome

    • Polycystic ovary syndrome

    • Gestational diabetes

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    Modifiable Lifestyle Factors

    • Dietary factors

    • Lack of exercise

    • Smoking

    • Additional information

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    Demographic Factors

    • Race/ethnicity

    • Socioeconomic status

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    Other Conditions Associated with Diabetes

    • Hypertension

    • Hemochromatosis

    • Chronic hepatitis C infection

    • Helicobacter pylori infection

    • Depression

    • Cancer

    • Acute pancreatitis

    • Renal transplant

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    Medications

    • Thiazide diuretics and beta blockers

    • Statins

    • Niacin

    • Hormonal contraception

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      Antiretroviral therapy

      • Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)

      • Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs)

    • Concomitant SSRI and tricyclic use

    • Clomipramine

    • Antidepressants

    • Antipsychotics

    • Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs)

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    Environmental Toxins

    • Exposure to organochlorine/organophosphate insecticides

    • Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)

    • Arsenic

    • Air pollution

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    Biomarkers Associated With Increased Risk

    • Inflammatory markers

    • Elevated liver enzymes (GGT and ALT)

    • Potassium levels

    • Increased iron stores

    • Low ghrelin levels

    • Leptin levels

    • Endothelial dysfunction

    • Melatonin secretion

    • Endogenous sex hormone levels

    • Genetic variants

    • Organochlorine pollutants

    • Elevated fetuin-A levels

    • Low vitamin C

    • Elevated uric acid levels

    • Vitamin D

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    Other Possible Risk Factors

    • Retinal arteriolar narrowing

    • Low birth weight

    • Quantity and quality of sleep

    • History of lithotripsy

    • Underweight

    • Fatty liver

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    Identifying High-risk Patients

    • Risk modeling with biochemical parameters

    • Risk modeling without biochemical parameters

    • Computer-assisted risk assessment

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    Guidelines and Resources

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      Guidelines

      • United States guidelines

      • Canadian guidelines

    • Review articles

  • Patient Information

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    References

    • DynaMed Editorial Process

    • Special acknowledgements

    • How to cite

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