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Glucose-lowering Medications for Type 2 Diabetes

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    Overview and Recommendations

    • Management

  • Related Summaries

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    Recommendations

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      American Diabetes Association (ADA)

      • General considerations for choosing glucose-lowering medications

      • ADA recommended approach for choosing glucose-lowering medications in adults

      • ADA recommended approach for choosing glucose-lowering medications in children and adolescents

    • American College of Physicians (ACP)

    • Other organizations

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    Oral Agents

    • Metformin

    • Sulfonylureas

    • Thiazolidinediones (glitazones)

    • Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-4) inhibitors (gliptins)

    • Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors

    • Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors

    • Bromocriptine mesylate

    • Colesevelam

    • Meglitinide analogs

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      Other oral medications

      • Salsalate

      • Supplements

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    Injectable Agents

    • Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists

    • Amylin analogs (pramlintide)

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      Insulin

      • Types and dosing

      • Insulin as initial therapy for type 2 diabetes

      • Insulin for type 2 diabetes with suboptimal glycemic control

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        Insulin use during hospitalization

        • Critically ill patients

        • Hospitalized noncritically ill patients

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    Comparative Efficacy of Beneficial Effects

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      Monotherapy comparisons

      • Mortality

      • Cardiovascular events

      • Body weight

      • HbA1c

      • Other outcomes

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      Combination therapy comparisons

      • Cardiovascular events and mortality

      • Renal disease

      • Body weight

      • HbA1c

      • Other outcomes

    • Add-on therapy comparisons

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    Adverse Effects Comparisons

    • Overview

    • Hypoglycemia

    • Gastrointestinal side effects

    • Bone mineral density

    • Fractures

    • Cancer

    • Pancreatitis

    • Other adverse effects

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    Quality Improvement

    • Choosing Wisely

    • Choosing Wisely Canada

    • Choosing Wisely Italy

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    Guidelines and Resources

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      Guidelines

      • International guidelines

      • United States guidelines

      • United Kingdom guidelines

      • European guidelines

      • Other guidelines

    • Review articles

  • Patient Decision Aids

  • Patient Information

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    References

    • General references used

    • Recommendation grading systems used

    • Synthesized Recommendation Grading System for DynaMed

    • DynaMed Editorial Process

    • Special acknowledgements

    • How to cite

Topic Editor
Lyle Mitzner MD
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Affiliations

Assistant Professor, Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Massachusetts, United States; Staff Physician in Endocrinology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and New England Baptist Hospital; Massachusetts, United States

Conflicts of Interest

Dr. Mitzner declares no relevant financial conflicts of interest.

Recommendations Editor
Esther Jolanda van Zuuren MD
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Affiliations

Head of Allergy, Dermatology, and Venereology, Leiden University Medical Centre; Netherlands

Conflicts of Interest

Dr. van Zuuren declares no relevant financial conflicts of interest.

Deputy Editor
Alan Ehrlich MD
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Affiliations

Executive Editor, DynaMed; Associate Professor of Family Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School; Massachusetts, United States

Conflicts of Interest

Dr. Ehrlich declares no relevant financial conflicts of interest.

Produced in collaboration with American College of Physicians
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