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Glucose-lowering Medications for Type 2 Diabetes


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    Overview and Recommendations

    • Management

  • Related Summaries

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      American Diabetes Association (ADA)

      • General considerations for choosing glucose-lowering medications

      • ADA recommended approach for choosing glucose-lowering medications in adults

      • ADA recommended approach for choosing glucose-lowering medications in children and adolescents

    • American College of Physicians (ACP)

    • Other organizations

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    Oral Agents

    • Metformin

    • Sulfonylureas

    • Thiazolidinediones (glitazones)

    • Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-4) inhibitors (gliptins)

    • Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors

    • Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors

    • Bromocriptine mesylate

    • Colesevelam

    • Meglitinide analogs

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      Other oral medications

      • Salsalate

      • Supplements

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    Injectable Agents

    • Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists

    • Amylin analogs (pramlintide)

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      • Types and dosing

      • Insulin as initial therapy for type 2 diabetes

      • Insulin for type 2 diabetes with suboptimal glycemic control

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        Insulin use during hospitalization

        • Critically ill patients

        • Hospitalized noncritically ill patients

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    Comparative Efficacy of Beneficial Effects

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      Monotherapy comparisons

      • Mortality

      • Cardiovascular events

      • Body weight

      • HbA1c

      • Other outcomes

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      Combination therapy comparisons

      • Cardiovascular events and mortality

      • Renal disease

      • Body weight

      • HbA1c

      • Other outcomes

    • Add-on therapy comparisons

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    Adverse Effects Comparisons

    • Overview

    • Hypoglycemia

    • Gastrointestinal side effects

    • Bone mineral density

    • Fractures

    • Cancer

    • Pancreatitis

    • Other adverse effects

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    Quality Improvement

    • Choosing Wisely

    • Choosing Wisely Canada

    • Choosing Wisely Italy

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    Guidelines and Resources

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      • International guidelines

      • United States guidelines

      • United Kingdom guidelines

      • European guidelines

      • Other guidelines

    • Review articles

  • Patient Decision Aids

  • Patient Information

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    • General references used

    • Recommendation grading systems used

    • Synthesized Recommendation Grading System for DynaMed

    • DynaMed Editorial Process

    • Special acknowledgements

    • How to cite

Topic Editor
Lyle Mitzner MD

Assistant Professor, Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Massachusetts, United States; Staff Physician in Endocrinology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and New England Baptist Hospital; Massachusetts, United States

Conflicts of Interest

Dr. Mitzner declares no relevant financial conflicts of interest.

Recommendations Editor
Esther Jolanda van Zuuren MD

Head of Allergy, Dermatology, and Venereology, Leiden University Medical Centre; Netherlands

Conflicts of Interest

Dr. van Zuuren declares no relevant financial conflicts of interest.

Deputy Editor
Alan Ehrlich MD

Executive Editor, DynaMed; Associate Professor of Family Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School; Massachusetts, United States

Conflicts of Interest

Dr. Ehrlich declares no relevant financial conflicts of interest.

Produced in collaboration with American College of Physicians