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Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever


General Information

General Information


  • zoonotic, tickborne viral illness endemic in Africa, Asia, Middle East, and Eastern Europe1,2,3,4
  • spectrum of illness is wide1,2,3,4
    • asymptomatic infection or mild influenza-like illness in > 80%
    • life-threatening illness is rare and characterized by hemorrhage and multiorgan failure
  • illness may be rapidly fatal in up to 30% with hemorrhagic fever1,2,4

Also called

  • Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF)
  • Central Asian hemorrhagic fever
  • Crimean hemorrhagic fever
  • Congo fever
  • Asian Ebola
  • Khungribta (blood taking)
  • Khunymuny (nose bleeding)
  • Karakhalak (black death)


General references used

  1. Shayan S, Bokaean M, Shahrivar MR, Chinikar S. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever. Lab Med. 2015 Summer;46(3):180-9OpenInNew full-text
  2. Papa A, Mirazimi A, Köksal I, Estrada-Pena A, Feldmann H. Recent advances in research on Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. J Clin Virol. 2015 Mar;64:137-43OpenInNewfull-textOpenInNew
  3. Leblebicioglu H, Ozaras R, Irmak H, Sencan I. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Turkey: Current status and future challenges. Antiviral Res. 2016 Feb;126:21-34OpenInNew
  4. Tezer H, Polat M. Diagnosis of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2015 May;13(5):555-66OpenInNew
  5. World Health Organization. Clinical management of patients with viral haemorrhagic fever: pocket guide for front-line health workers. WHO 2016 PDFPictureAsPdf
  6. Bente DA, Forrester NL, Watts DM, McAuley AJ, Whitehouse CA, Bray M. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever: history, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical syndrome and genetic diversity. Antiviral Res. 2013 Oct;100(1):159-89OpenInNew

DynaMed Editorial Process

Special acknowledgements

  • Alan Ehrlich, MD (Executive Editor; Associate Professor of Family Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School; Massachusetts, United States)
  • Dr. Ehrlich declares no relevant financial conflicts of interest.

How to cite

National Library of Medicine, or "Vancouver style" (International Committee of Medical Journal Editors):

  • DynaMed [Internet]. Ipswich (MA): EBSCO Information Services. 1995 - . Record No. T114468, Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever; [updated 2018 Nov 30, cited place cited date here]. Available from Registration and login required.
  • Related Summaries

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    General Information

    • Description

    • Also called

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    • Geographic distribution

    • Incidence/Prevalence

    • Risk factors

    • Associated conditions

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    Etiology and Pathogenesis

    • Pathogen

    • Transmission

    • Pathogenesis

    • Immune response

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    History and Physical

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      • Chief concern (CC)

      • Social history (SH)

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      • General physical

      • Skin

      • HEENT

      • Lungs

      • Abdomen

      • Extremities

      • Neuro

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    • Making the diagnosis

    • Differential diagnosis

    • Testing overview

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      Blood tests

      • General laboratory findings

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    • Management overview

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        Antiviral therapy

        • Ribavirin

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      • Immunoglobulin

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      • Plasma exchange and plasmapheresis

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    Complications and Prognosis

    • Complications

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    Prevention and Screening

    • Prevention

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    Guidelines and Resources

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    • General references used

    • DynaMed Editorial Process

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