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Rhythm Control in Atrial Fibrillation

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    Overview and Recommendations

    • Background

    • Evaluation

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      Management

      • Acute rhythm control (cardioversion)

      • General considerations before starting long-term pharmacologic rhythm control (maintenance therapy)

      • Oral antiarrhythmic drug selection

  • Related Summaries

  • Definitions

  • Acute Rhythm Control (Cardioversion)

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    Rate Control vs. Rhythm Control as Initial Strategy

    • General considerations and recommendations for choice of rate vs. rhythm control

    • Evidence comparing rate vs. rhythm control strategy

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      Evidence comparing rate vs. rhythm control in specific patient populations

      • Heart failure

      • Myocardial infarction

      • Post-mitral balloon valvotomy

      • Older patients

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    Long-term Pharmacologic Rhythm Control (Maintenance Therapy)

    • Considerations before starting antiarrhythmic drug therapy

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      Recommendations for antiarrhythmic drug selection

      • American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology/Heart Rhythm Society (AHA/ACC/HRS) recommendations

      • European Society of Cardiology (ESC)

      • Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS)

    • Efficacy of antiarrhythmic drugs for maintaining sinus rhythm

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      Amiodarone

      • General information and recommendations

      • Amiodarone efficacy

      • Amiodarone toxicity

    • Dofetilide

    • Dronedarone

    • Flecainide

    • Propafenone

    • Sotalol

    • Other antiarrhythmic drugs not generally recommended

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      Nonantiarrhythmic drugs with antiarrhythmic effects

      • Beta blockers

      • Renin-angiotensin system inhibitors

      • Statins

      • Colchicine

      • Omega-3 fatty acids

    • Efficacy comparing antiarrhythmic drugs

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    Intermittent Antiarrhythmic Drug Therapy for Acute Rhythm Control

    • Background and recommendations

    • Evidence

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    Long-term Nonpharmacologic Rhythm Control

    • Ablation therapy

    • Acupuncture

  • Thromboembolic Prophylaxis

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    Guidelines and Resources

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      Guidelines

      • International guidelines

      • United States guidelines

      • United Kingdom guidelines

      • Canadian guidelines

      • European guidelines

      • Australian and New Zealand guidelines

    • Review articles

    • MEDLINE search

  • Patient Information

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    ICD Codes

    • ICD-10 codes

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    References

    • General references used

    • Recommendation grading systems used

    • Synthesized Recommendation Grading System for DynaMed

    • DynaMed Editorial Process

    • Special acknowledgements

    • How to cite

Topic Editor
Eli Gelfand MD
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Affiliations

Assistant Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Massachusetts, United States; Director, Ambulatory Cardiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center; Massachusetts, United States

Conflicts of Interest

Dr. Gelfand declares no relevant financial conflicts of interest.

Topic Editor
Panagiotis Papageorgiou MD, PhD
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Affiliations

Assistant Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Massachusetts, United States

Conflicts of Interest

Dr. Papageorgeiou declares no relevant financial conflicts of interest.

Recommendations Editor
Zbys Fedorowicz MSc, DPH, BDS, LDSRCS
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Affiliations

Director of Bahrain Branch of the United Kingdom Cochrane Center, The Cochrane Collaboration; Awali, Bahrain

Conflicts of Interest

Dr. Fedorowicz declares no relevant financial conflicts of interest.

Deputy Editor
Peter Oettgen MD
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Affiliations

Editor in Chief, DynaMed; Cardiologist, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center; Massachusetts, United States; Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Massachusetts, United States

Conflicts of Interest

Dr. Oettgen declares no relevant financial conflicts of interest.

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Management of patients with atrial fibrillation

Management of patients with atrial fibrillation

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