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Cervical Cancer Screening


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    Overview and Recommendations

    • Background

    • Evaluation

    • Management

  • Related Summaries

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    Screening Recommendations

    • American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG)

    • United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF)

    • American Cancer Society/American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology/American Society for Clinical Pathology (ACS/ASCCP/ASCP)

    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

    • World Health Organization (WHO)

    • American College of Physicians (ACP)

    • Choosing Wisely

    • American College of Gastroenterology

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    Cervical Cytology Screening

    • Efficacy for cancer prevention

    • Diagnostic accuracy

    • Evidence for screening frequency

    • Evidence for age to start or stop screening

    • Liquid-based vs. conventional cytology

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      Specimen collection

      • Speculum exam without feet in stirrups

      • Lubrication for speculum insertion

      • Cervical cleaning

      • Collection devices (when not using liquid-based cytology)

      • Patient self-collection

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      Cytology interpretation

      • Bethesda System terminology

      • Limitations to interpretation

    • Results during testing visit

  • Management of Abnormal Cytology

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    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) DNA Testing

    • HPV DNA testing

    • Management of positive test results

  • Cytology plus HPV DNA Co-testing

  • Colposcopy

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    Screening in Low Resource Settings

    • Alternative screening methods

    • Visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) efficacy (cancer prevention)

    • VIA accuracy

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    Considerations in Specific Populations

    • Adolescents and women < 21 years old

    • Postmenopausal women

    • Hysterectomy patients

    • Pregnant women

    • Women with HIV infection

    • Other specific populations

  • Interventions to Increase Screening

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    Quality Improvement

    • Quality and Outcomes Framework Indicators

    • Choosing Wisely

    • Choosing Wisely Canada

    • Choosing Wisely Australia

    • Additional Information

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    Guidelines and Resources

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      • International guidelines

      • United States guidelines

      • United Kingdom guidelines

      • Canadian guidelines

      • European guidelines

      • Asian guidelines

      • Australian and New Zealand guidelines

    • Review articles

  • Patient Information

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    ICD Codes

    • ICD-10 codes

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    • General references used

    • Recommendation grading systems used

    • Synthesized Recommendation Grading System for DynaMed

    • DynaMed Editorial Process

    • Special acknowledgements

    • How to cite

Topic Editor
Elliot M. Levine MD, FACOG

Assistant Professor, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Rush University Medical Center; Site Director of Informatics and Director of Informatics and Research, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Advocate Illinois Masonic Medical Center

Conflicts of Interest

Dr. Levine declares no relevant financial conflicts of interest.

Recommendations Editor
Esther Jolanda van Zuuren MD

Head of Allergy, Dermatology, and Venereology, Leiden University Medical Centre; Netherlands

Conflicts of Interest

Dr. van Zuuren declares no relevant financial conflicts of interest.

Deputy Editor
Alan Ehrlich MD, FAAFP

Executive Editor, DynaMed; Associate Professor of Family Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School; Massachusetts, United States

Conflicts of Interest

Dr. Ehrlich declares no relevant financial conflicts of interest.